Statistics from Altmetric.com
The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors introduced a new era of oncology. The CTLA4 or PD1/PDL1 axis targeting immune checkpoint inhibitors has shown remarkable and long-lasting responses in a variety of tumour types. Here, the biology of immune checkpoint inhibitors is outlined including the main site of action for the different immune checkpoint inhibitor types. Further, other possible immune checkpoints like LAG3 and other cells types including macrophages and NK cells, as future directions for immune modulating therapies, are discussed. Combination approaches, including immune checkpoint inhibitors and chemotherapy or radiotherapy, are currently investigated for their synergistic efficacy, and preliminary data have shown promising results.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.