Objectives
  • To be able to integrate ethical and legal rules into the care of patients with cancer

Awareness
  • Appreciation of the importance of the legal requirements for obtaining informed consent and the ethical duty of guiding patients to make appropriately informed decisions through shared decision-making

  • Awareness of the existence of situations raising conflicting ethical principles in the care of cancer patients

  • Awareness of the existence of different ethical approaches that guide the care at the end of life

  • Recognition of the availability of ethical counselling in problematic or conflicting situations

  • Appreciation of conflict of interest within the delivery of patient care and within the field of research

  • Recognition of legal and ethical issues associated with conduct of clinical trials

  • Appreciation of the importance of genetic counselling for assessment of genetic susceptibility and treatment decisions

  • Appreciation of the importance of technology assessment for new treatment options

  • Awareness of the ethical issues of big data and privacy

Knowledge
  • Knowledge of the Good Clinical Practice (GCP) guidelines

  • Familiarity with the ethical principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, justice and truthfulness

  • Familiarity with key ethical principles and local legal statutes that guide limits of treatment at the end of life

  • Familiarity with the necessity of setting shared treatment goals at the end of life, including decisions regarding life-sustaining treatments

  • Familiarity with guidelines that define conflict of interest (and declaration thereof)

  • Familiarity with guidelines and local statutes that regulate data protection and privacy rights with regard to genetic information and tissue-banking

  • Familiarity with principles informing the ethical conduct of clinical trials

Skills
  • Ability to communicate basic ethical and legal principles with patients and relatives

  • Ability to guide patients through the process of obtaining (or withdrawing) informed consent for clinical and research procedures

  • Ability to guide and discuss critically advance directives and surrogate decision-making options with capable patients, including advance care planning issues

  • Ability to discuss treatment and goals of care at the end of life with capable patients, including advance care planning

  • Ability to work with surrogate decision makers according to the legal rules

  • Ability to discuss the ethical and local legal issues relevant to euthanasia, assisted suicide and allowing natural death

  • Ability to provide palliative care for the dying, including palliative sedation within the local legal scope

  • Ability to discuss patient rights guiding the appropriate conduct of clinical studies

  • Ability to discuss ethical dimensions of randomisation, stopping rules and confidentiality in clinical trials

  • Ability to contribute actively and to prepare arguments in clinical–ethical rounds

  • Ability to apply the rules of GCP while performing clinical studies