Objectives
  • To be able to understand the challenges of treating cancer with limited resources

Awareness
  • Awareness of the existence of vast heterogeneity among low- and middle-income countries (LMCs) in terms of available resources, public policy-related and social conditions and healthcare infrastructure

  • Awareness of the existence of important discrepancies in cancer treatment outcomes across the globe

  • Appreciation of the principles of cancer prevention in limited-resource environments

  • Awareness of the variability of access to radiotherapy and cancer medicines across the globe

Knowledge
  • Familiarity with the epidemiology of cancer in LMCs, including incidence and mortality rates by regions of the world

  • Understanding of the challenges that the current trends and the cancer epidemic will bring to LMCs

  • Understanding of the aetiology of cancer in LMCs, particularly as related to infectious diseases

  • Familiarity with interventions for cancer prevention and early detection in LMCs

  • Understanding of common barriers to cancer control in LMCs, including public awareness and education, healthcare provider training and workforce issues, financial resources and governmental prioritisation

  • Familiarity with the important discrepancies in availability of cancer care, in terms of cancer medication, access to radiotherapy and quality surgery

  • Understanding of the construct of the WHO Essential Medicines List

  • Familiarity with the concept of resource-stratified treatment guidelines

  • Familiarity with the practice of multidisciplinary management of patients with cancer

Skills
  • Ability to find, report and critically discuss epidemiological evidence from LMCs

  • Ability to contribute to discussions on general management strategies of cancer in LMCs, including prevention

  • Ability to discuss the content of the WHO Essential Medicine List for cancer

  • Ability to discuss the practical application of resource-stratified guidelines