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The crucial role of testosterone in the growth and dissemination of prostate cancer has been well known for over six decades. In his 1966 Nobel Lecture, Charles Huggins described how in his clinical studies, he discovered that endocrine manipulation, either by castration or oestrogen administration, led to a significant increase in appetite, and a decrease in pain in patients with advanced prostate cancer.1 By using this approach, Huggins became the first clinician to provide an effective, systemic antihormonal treatment for patients with prostate cancer.
Nowadays, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is still the cornerstone of the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. By lowering serum testosterone levels to castrate levels using luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonists, androgen receptor (AR) driven tumour growth is …
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