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New emerging targets in cancer immunotherapy beyond CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-L1: Introducing an “ESMO Open – Cancer Horizons” Series
  1. Matteo Lambertini1,2,
  2. Matthias Preusser3,
  3. Christoph C Zielinski M.D.4
  1. 1Department of Medical Oncology, U.O.C. Clinica di Oncologia Medica, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy
  2. 2Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties (DiMI), School of Medicine, University of Genova, Genova, Italy
  3. 3Clinical Divison of Oncology, Department of Medicine I, General Hospital – Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  4. 4Vienna Cancer Center, City of Vienna - Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  1. Correspondence to Dr Matteo Lambertini; matteo.lambertini{at}

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The ability of tumour cells to escape the surveillance and elimination by the immune system represents one of the hallmarks of cancer.1 2 This concept of immune control against cancer development, recognised more than 60 years ago by Paul Ehrlich, has recently led to the development of novel different treatment approaches (ie, cancer immunotherapy) aiming to reinvigorate the capability of the immune system to recognise and eliminate tumour cells.3 For this purpose, while the use of tumour antigenic material as a cancer vaccine has not proven to be particularly successful so far,4 the advent of therapies able to inactivate inhibitory immune receptors (ie, immune checkpoints) leading to a subsequent increased anti-tumour response …

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