• To be familiar with the incidence and special characteristics of malignancies observed in young adults (18–39 years)

  • Recognition that, in this age group, support from other disciplines is crucial

  • Appreciation that lack of compliance continues to be an issue and long-term follow-up is necessary

  • Awareness of the need for screening for long-term treatment-related toxicity

  • Awareness of the need to immunise patients/young healthy adults for human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine until age 26 years

  • Awareness of the need to counsel patients/young healthy adults regarding risky lifestyle behaviours

  • Knowledge regarding the incidence and epidemiology of the various types of cancer in young adults

  • Understanding of the risk factors and known causes of tumours in young adult patients

  • Understanding of the magnitude of risk of treatment-related late toxicity after treating cancer

  • Ability to communicate the diagnosis, to treat and to psychosocially support and care for young adults

  • Ability to contribute actively to a variety of clinical scenarios and patient presentations

  • Ability to discuss critically the treatment options/recommendations

  • Ability to perform a history and physical examination in young adult patients with cancer, including differential diagnoses in this age group

  • Ability to contribute to discussions on general management strategies in order to understand all the considerations on which treatment to use

  • Ability to select the most appropriate therapeutic strategies

  • Ability to manage side effects of various therapeutic agents

  • Ability to discuss prevention strategies with patients

  • Ability to discuss specific long-term toxicities with the patients, including fertility preservation options