• To be familiar with the incidence and special characteristics of malignancies observed in adolescence (15–18 years)

  • Recognition that adolescence is a short period of somatic, social and spiritual evolution

  • Appreciation that most cancers in this age group have a worse prognosis compared to the same cancers in children

  • Awareness that, in this special age group, support from other disciplines is crucial

  • Appreciation that lack of compliance is a great issue and long-term follow-up is necessary

  • Awareness of the need for screening for long-term treatment-related toxicity

  • Awareness of the need to immunise patients/healthy adolescents for human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine

  • Awareness of the need to counsel patients/healthy adolescents regarding risky lifestyle behaviours

  • Knowledge that tumours in this age group may be:

    • Paediatric with late onset (sarcoma, medulloblastoma)

    • Adult type with early onset (thyroid cancer, melanoma)

    • Adolescent tumours (bone tumours, testicular tumours)

    • Tumours occurring at any age (leukaemia, lymphoma)

  • Familiarity with late toxicity after treating cancer in adolescents

  • Ability to communicate the diagnosis, to treat and to psychosocially support and care for adolescents

  • Ability to contribute actively to a variety of clinical scenarios and patient presentations

  • Ability to discuss critically the treatment options/recommendations

  • Ability to perform a history and physical examination in adolescent patients with cancer, including differential diagnoses in this age group

  • Ability to contribute to discussions on general management strategies in order to understand all the considerations on which treatment to use

  • Ability to select the most appropriate therapeutic strategies

  • Ability to manage side effects of various therapeutic agents

  • Ability to discuss prevention strategies with patients

  • Ability to discuss specific long-term toxicities with the patients, including fertility preservation options