• To know the principles and general rules of staging systems, mainly the TNM (tumour-node-metastasis) staging system

  • To be able to do adequate staging

  • Appreciation of the relationship between the TNM system and contemporary practice in order to assign each stage

  • Appreciation of the difference between clinical and pathological staging

  • Awareness of post-therapy or post-neoadjuvant therapy staging and re-staging

  • Awareness of stage migration by use of more sensitive methods

  • Appreciation of the principles and general rules of the TNM system

  • Understanding of the TNM classification

  • Understanding of different systems of staging in each tumour type, Lugano Classification for lymphoma, the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) Classification for colorectal cancer, staging system for small-cell lung cancer, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages for gynaecological tumours

  • Understanding of the correlation between stage and prognosis

  • Understanding of the differences in treatment choice based on staging

  • Ability to choose the adequate procedures such as physical examinations, imaging studies, laboratory tests and pathological or cytological examinations