Table 1

Epidemiological factors of multiple primary tumours

Epidemiological factors of multiple primaries
Host factorsGeneticsFor example, ancestry, Li-Fraumeni and BRCA mutations
Hormonal factorsFor example, hormonal therapy and endometrial cancer
Prior cancer diagnosis and treatment exposuresThe incidence of a second malignancy is higher in a person with a previous cancer diagnosis compared with a person of the same age group without a prior cancer
Lifestyle factorsAlcoholThese are risk factors for several cancer types and are therefore more likely to develop more than one of these predisposed cancer types compared with people without these lifestyle factors
Environmental influencesGeographyFor example, cancer risk in areas of increased radon exposure
PathogensFor example, infections (human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus)
OccupationFor example, profession-associated cancer types like mesothelioma in workers with asbestos