Table 1

Processes inducing an accelerated ageing-like state

ProcessPhenotypic effects
Telomere attrition
  • Frailty

  • Impaired tissue/organ functioning

  • Premature ageing syndromes (aplastic anaemia, pulmonary fibrosis)

Cellular senescence
  • Frailty

Free radical generation
  • Pulmonary fibrosis

  • Cardiac toxicity

  • Renal toxicity

  • Secondary malignancies

Stem cell exhaustion
  • Reduced tolerance to antineoplastic therapy

  • Reduced renal and pulmonary function reserve

Epigenetic alterations
  • Secondary malignancies

  • Premature ageing syndromes (aplastic anaemia, pulmonary fibrosis)