Table 1

Depression assessments and results

StudyPrimary outcomeMeasure
tool and scoring
Baseline depression score, mean (SD) Intervention(s)/controlPost-treatment and follow-up depression scores and differences from baseline, mean (SD) Intervention(s)/control
Bower et al29FatigueBDI-II (0–63; higher is worse)15.5 (7.5)/14.3 (7.5)PT: 12 weeks: 7.7 (5.8)/11.6 (7.1); groups differed significantly
50.3%/18.8% reduction in symptoms
FU: 3 months: 9.9 (8.0)/10.5 (7.9); groups did not significantly differ 36.1%/32.2% reduction in symptoms
Cantarero-Villanueva et al38FatiguePOMS (0–60; higher is worse)52.39 (12.14)/52.42 (11.01)PT: 8 weeks: 47.15 (9.34)/52.40 (10.91); groups differed significantly
10%/0.04% reduction in symptoms
FU: 6 months: 48.17 (8.94)/55.30 (12.12); groups differed significantly
8% reduction/5.5% increase in symptoms
Naumann et al34Physiological function, QoL, depression, fatigueBDI (0–63; higher is worse)Ex: 11.7 (2.71)/ExC: 15.0 (3.03)/C: 15.3 (3.10)/8.9/1 (2.89)†PT: 8 weeks†: Ex: 8.1 (1.31)/ExC: 11.0 (1.48)/C: 15.0 (1.51)/10.91 (1.44); Ex and ExC intervention groups differed significantly with control group
30.7%/26.6%/2% reduction/22.5% increase in symptoms
Cantarero-Villanueva et al33FatiguePOMS (0–60; higher is worse)48.55 (9.31)/52.25 (11.55)PT: 8 weeks: 45.58 (9.68)/53.71 (11.60); groups differed significantly
6.1% reduction/2.8% increase in symptoms
FU: 6 months: 46.03 (9.01)/52.68 (11.84); groups differed significantly
5.2% reduction/0.8% increase in symptoms
Ergun et al42Cytokine levelsBDI (0–63; higher is worse)Supervised: 7.75 (6.69)/home based: 9.05 (8.18)/educational: 7.5 (7.95)PT: 12 weeks: supervised: 4.70 (4.10)/home based: 8.88 (10.48)/educational: 5.15 (5.18); groups did not significantly differ
39.4%/1.9%/31.3% reduction in symptoms
Spahn et al35FatigueHADS (0–21; higher is worse)5.3 (3.6)/6.4 (3.4)PT: 10 weeks: 3.8 (3.7)/5.7 (3.4); groups did not significantly differ 28.3%/10.9% reduction in symptoms
FU: 3 months: 5.3 (4.3)/6.0 (4.3); groups did not significantly differ 0%/6.3% reduction in symptoms
Chandwani et al36Physical and mental components of QoLCES-D (0–60; cut-off score ≥16)Yoga: 15.4 (1.5)/stretching: 11.7 (0.8)/wait list: 15.1 (1.4)Groups did not significantly differ at any of the four time points
PT: 6 week: 17.3 (1.4)/17.8 (1.1)/15.8 (1.4)
12.3%/52.1%/4.6%increase in symptoms
FU: 1 month: 13.1 (1.7)/11.6 (1.4)/12.3 (1.3)
14.9%/0.8%/18.5% reduction in symptoms
FU: 3 months: 13.9 (1.7)/9.6 (1.4)/12.9 (1.6)
9.7%/17.9%/14.6% reduction in symptoms
FU: 6 months: 13.9 (1.8)/10.4 (1.4)/11.5 (1.3)
9.7%/11.1%/23.8% reduction in symptoms
Courneya et al39DepressionCES-D short form (0–30; cut-off score ≥8)High: 6.3 (5.1)/
combined: 5.8 (5.0)/
standard: 5.6 (3.9)
Groups did not significantly differ at any of three time points (1/3 and 2/3 through chemotherapy, postchemotherapy)
FU: high: 5.9 (0.33)/combined: 6.4 (0.32)/standard: 6.8 (0.33)‡
6.3% reduction/10.3%/21.4% increase in symptoms
Saxton et al32NS indices of psychological health status (depression/perceived stress, HPA axis regulation and immune function)BDI-II (0–63; higher is worse)11.3 (7.6)/10.2 (5.5)FU: 6 months: 5.1 (4.9)×(6.1 point reduction clinically meaningful)/
7.9 (6.0); groups differed significantly
54.9%/22.5% reduction in symptoms
Steindorf et al30FatigueCES-D (linearly rescaled to 0–100, cut-off score >38)26(17)/28(17)PT: 12 weeks: 25 (18)/25 (17); groups did not significantly differ
3.8% reduction/10.7% increase in symptoms
Rock et al6QoL (vitality and functioning)CES-D (0–60; cut-off score ≥16)9.9 (0.50)/9.7 (0.50)FU: 6 months: 11.4 (0.44)/10.6 (0.44); groups did not significantly differ
15.1%/9.3% increase in symptoms
12 months: 11.9 (0.45)/10.9 (0.47); groups did not significantly differ
20.2%/12.4% increase in symptoms
24 months: 11.8 (0.47)/9.9 (0.47); groups differed significantly in favour of control group
19.2%/2% increase in symptoms
Schmidt et al41FatigueCES-D (linearly rescaled to 0–100, cut-off score >38)20.3 (10.7)/20.3 (9.9)PT: 12 weeks: 20.4 (12.8)/21.1 (13.2); groups did not significantly differ
0.5% reduction/3.9% increase in symptoms
Travier et al37FatigueHADS (20-item Dutch version)2.5 (3.1)/2.4 (2.7)Scores NR. Groups did not significantly differ at PT (18 weeks) and FU (36 months)
Gokal et al40Psychosocial measures (depression included)HADS (0–21; higher is worse)/
POMS-SF
HADS: 5.52 (3.79)/
6.68 (4.00)
POMS-SF: 4.92 (5.31)/6.68 (5.72)
PT: 12 weeks: HADS: 4.44 (3.37)/6.16 (2.21); groups did not significantly differ 19.6%/7.8% reduction in symptoms
POMS-SF: 1.68 (2.01)/6.44 (4.99); groups differed significantly
65.8%/3.6% reduction in symptoms
  • *Significant reduction in depression score from baseline (P<0.05).

  • †Adjusted mean (SE).

  • ‡Average adjusted mean score (SE) for the three time points.

  • BDI-II, Beck Depression Inventory; CES-D, for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression; FU, Follow up; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HPA, Hippocampus; POMS, Profile of Mood State; PT, Post Treatment; QoL, quality of life; NS, Not Stated.