Table 4

Intervention characteristics

StudyIntervention group(s) componentsControl group(s)
Exercise mode, supervised versus home based in intervention group(s)Exercise activityLength (weeks)Frequency (sessions/week)Duration/session
Bower et al29Lyengar yogaHealth education classesYoga, supervisedYoga12290Low
Cantarero-Villanueva et al38Multimodal physical training and recovery proceduresUCAE, RE, stretching, massage, supervisedAE: unspecific work progressing to fast working with arms movement
RE: Core stability exercises: soft-ball, fit-ball, elastic band
8390AE: moderate (ACSM/AHA rec)
RE: 75% of maximum load, whole-body progressive 2–3 sets of 10–15 reps
Naumann et al34Multimodal exercise training/exercise and counselling/counselling programmeUCAE, RE, patient-specific rehab core training, flexibility, supervisedNR8345–60Moderate (ACSM rec)
Cantarero-Villanueva et al33Deep-water aquatic exercise programmeUCAE, RE, mobility, stretching, supervisedAE: different horizontal movements RE: exercises progressively with equipment (pool noodles, pull buoy, swimming board)8360:10 warm up, 40 (5–15 AE+RE), 10 cool downAE: moderate (ACSM/AHA rec)
RE: whole-body progressive 2–3 sets of 10–15 reps BRPES (ACSM/AHA rec)
Ergun et al42Supervised exercise/home-based exerciseEducation programmeAE, RE, stretching, relaxation, supervised/AE, home basedAE: brisk walking, RE: Thera band whole-body, semisquats12375: 45: AE+RE (10 warm up), 30 Walking/30RE: moderate, AE: moderate
Spahn et al35Multimodal mind–body programme (nutrition counselling, relaxation, physical exercise, stress reduction, cognitive restructuring, hydrotherapy)Home-based walking interventionAE, supervised (weeks 1, 3, 10) and home basedWalking10330HR: 180− (chronological age±10) bpm
Chandwani et al36YogaStretching/wait listYoga, supervisedYoga6360Low
Courneya et al39High AE programme/combined AE+RE programmeStandard AE programme (25–30 min vigorous ACSM and ACS rec)AE, RE, supervisedAE: treadmill, elliptical, cycling/rowing ergometer or combination
RE: four leg exercises, five upper-body exercises
16.4a3High: 50–60 AE,
Combined: 50–60 (25–30 AE+30–35 RE)
AE: vigorous (average high: 65.2%, combined: 67.4% of VO2 peak)
RE: 60%–75% of estimated 1 RM, 2 sets of 10–12 reps
Saxton et al32Multimodal exercise and dietary advice programmeUCAE, RE, supervisedAE: treadmill, cross-trainer, cycling/rowing ergometer
RE: resistance bands, hand weights, stability balls
24345:30AE+10–15 REAE: 65%–85% max HR (220-age) bpm
Steindorf et al30Progressive resistance trainingMuscle relaxationRE, supervised, groupMachine-based resistance exercises, three leg exercises,
five upper body exercises
1226060%–80% of 1 RM 1–3 sets of 8–12 repetitions
(ACSM rec)
Rock et al6Intensive exercise and weight loss programmeWritten material on exercise and dietUnsupervised and home basedNR52NR150/weekModerate (ACSM rec)
Schmidt et al41Progressive resistance trainingMuscle relaxationRE, supervisedMachine-based resistance exercises, three leg exercises, five upper body exercises1226060%–80% of 1 RM 1–3 sets of 8–12 repetitions
(ACSM rec)
Travier et al37Individualised exercise programmeUCAE, RE, supervisedAE: interval training, mode NR
RE: arms, legs, shoulder, trunk exercises, mode NR
18260:5 warm up,
25 AE+RE,
5 cool down
AE: Alternating at (3×2 min to 2×7 min) or below (3×4 min decreasing to 1×7 min) ventilatory threshold HR
RE: 45%–75% of 1 RM, 1–2 sets of 10–20 repetitions
Gokal et al40Self-managed progressive programmeUCAE, home basedWalking12330Moderate (Department of Health, Physical Activity, Health Improvement and
Prevention rec, 2004)
  • ACS, American Cancer Society; ACSM, American College of Sports Medicine; AE, Aerobic; AHA, American Heart Association;  BRPES, Borg Rating Perceived Exertion Scale; RE, Resistance; RM, Repetition Maximum; UC, Usual Care.