Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study patients

VariableN (%)
Gender
 Male32 (74%)
 Female11 (26%)
Basis for LMD diagnosis
 CSF and radiology positive23 (53%)
 CSF positive only8 (19%)
 Radiology positive only9 (21%)
 Surgical pathology positive only3 (7%)
Mutation status
BRAF mutant21 (49%)
NRAS mutant9 (21%)
BRAF/NRAS wild-type3 (7%)
 Other (KIT, ABL1,
CDKN2A)
3 (7%)
 Unknown7 (16%)
Prior systemic therapy
 No11 (26%)
 Yes32 (74%)
Temozolomide
 No29 (67%)
 Yes14 (33%)
Immunotherapy
 No23 (53%)
 Yes20 (47%)
Prior immunotherapy received
 Biochemotherapy
 (containing IL-2 and interferon regimen)
9 (21%)
 High-dose IL-24 (9%)
 Adoptive cell therapy3 (7%)
 Ipilimumab4 (9%)
 Anti-PD13 (7%)
BRAF or BRAF/MEK inhibitors
 No32 (74%)
Prior radiation therapy
 No16 (37%)
 Yes27 (63%)
Steroids
 No26 (60%)
 Yes17 (40%)
Previous parenchymal brain metastases
 No9 (21%)
 Yes34 (79%)
LDH > ULN
 No15 (35%)
 Yes28 (65%)
Neurological symptoms present
 No22 (51%)
 Yes21 (49%)
Extracranial disease
 None/LMD only12 (28%)
 Systemic controlled20 (47%)
 Systemic uncontrolled11 (26%)
Concomitant therapy
 None27 (63%)
 Immunotherapy2 (5%)
 Targeted*7 (16%)
 Temozolomide2 (5%)
 Radiation5 (12%)
  • Definition of extracranial disease: none = no concurrent systemic disease; LMD only = LMD with no prior or concurrent systemic disease, and patient never diagnosed with parenchymal brain metastases; systemic controlled = concurrent but controlled systemic disease; systemic uncontrolled = progressive systemic disease.

  • *BRAF inhibitor ± MEK inhibitor.

  • CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; IL, interleukin; LDH, lactic dehydrogenase; LMD, leptomeningeal disease; ULN, upper limit of normal.