Table 1

An overview of the study characteristics, treatment and comparator, type of evaluation, perspective, year of value and time horizon of the selected studies

ReferenceStudy characteristicsTreatment and comparatornKey findings
24 Patients with NSCLC treated with nivolumabNivolumab monotherapy50Response to treatment before nivolumab associated with response to nivolumab. Smoking history had no significant influence (never vs current/former smoker ORR 5% vs 26%, p=0.1269).
16 Sequenced exons of NSCLCsPembrolizumab34Efficacy greater in tumours harbouring smoking signature (ORR 56% vs 17%, p=0.03)
25 EGFR and ALK rearrangements in NSCLCPD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors58Smoking history had no significant influence (never/light vs heavy smokers ORR 4.2% vs 20.6%, p=0.123).
26 Adenocarcinoma of the lungTesting PD-L1 tumour proportion score71Tumours with a PD-L1 TPS>50% were significantly associated with smoking status.
27 Patients with NSCLC in East Asia. 108 SCC and 221 LUAD.PD-L1 expression/distribution329TPS>50% correlated with smoking history in both SCC (p=0.008) and adenocarcinoma (p=0.002).
17 Pembrolizumab in NSCLC. KEYNOTE-001.Pembrolizumab10 mg/kg every 2 weeks, 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks, 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks495Current/former smoking status was associated with increased ORR (10.3% vs 22.5% in never smokers).
15 Pembrolizumab or platinum-based CT. KEYNOTE-024.Pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks
305ORR 44.8% vs 27.8%. HR for progression/death among smokers 0.68 and former smokers 0.47.
18 Pemetrexed and platinum plus pembrolizumab or placebo in advanced NSCLC. KEYNOTE-189.Pemetrexed, platinum and pembrolizumab or placebo every 3 weeks61688.1% current or former smokers. HR for death among current or former smokers 0.54 versus never smoker 0.23. Progression-free survival HR 0.54 and 0.43, respectively.
19 Nivolumab versus docetaxel in patients with NSCLC. Phase III study.Nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks versus docetaxel 75 mg/m2 every 3 weeks58279% were current/former smokers. HR was 0.70 and 1.02 in former/current smokers and never smokers, respectively.
  • ALK, anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase; CT, chemotherapy; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; LUAD, lung adenocarcinoma; NSCLC, non-small cell lung cancer; ORR, overall response rate; PD-L1, programmed death ligand 1; SCC, squamous cell carcinoma; TPS, tumour proportion score.