Table 2

Examples of spiritual health interventions3

Therapeutic communication techniques
  1. Compassionate presence

  2. Reflective listening, query about important life events

  3. Support patient’s sources of spiritual strength

  4. Open-ended questions to illicit feelings

  5. Inquiry about spiritual beliefs, values and practices

  6. Life review, listening to the patient’s story

  7. Continued presence and follow-up

Therapy
  1. Referral to a trained spiritual care professional

  2. Progressive relaxation or guided imagery

  3. Breathing practice or contemplation

  4. Meaning-oriented therapy

  5. Referral to spiritual care provider as indicated

  6. Use of storytelling

  7. Dignity-conserving therapy

Self-care
  1. Massage

  2. Reconciliation with self or others

  3. Spiritual support groups

  4. Meditation

  5. Sacred/spiritual readings or rituals

  6. Yoga, tai chi

  7. Exercise

  8. Art therapy (music, art, dance)

  9. Journaling