Table 1

Summary of studies on the impact of religion, spirituality and spiritual care on outcomes of patients with cancer

First author, yearPatients (n)Observational versus interventionalQuality of the studySettingDiseaseOutcome
Garssen, 201521 10ObservationalProspective, descriptivePatientsAll cancers, but brain tumoursCoping with cancer diagnosis
Ripamonti, 201622 276ObservationalProspective, descriptivePatients with cancerHope
Visser, 201023 40 studiesLiterature reviewPatient with cancerWell-being
Jim, 201524 Over 32 000Meta-analysisPatients with cancerOverall physical health
Sherman, 201525 78 independent samples (14 277 patients)Meta-analysisPatient with cancerSocial health
Salsman, 201526 148 studiesMeta-analysisPatient with cancerMental health
Bai, 201527 36 studiesLiterature reviewPatients with cancerQuality of life
Trevino, 201428 603ObservationalProspective, descriptivePatients with advanced cancer (life expectancy <6 months)Lower risk for suicidal intention
Balboni, 201129 339ObservationalProspective, descriptiveAdvanced cancerGreater spiritual care provision is associated with better quality of life (QOL), less aggressive end-of-life medical care (and costs).
López-Sierra, 201530 26 studiesLiterature reviewEnd-of-life and palliative care patients with cancerMeaning
Kandasamy, 201131 50ObservationalProspective, cross sectionalPalliative care patient with cancerSpiritual well-being negatively associated with fatigue, symptom distress, memory disturbance, loss of appetite, drowsiness, dry mouth and sadness.
Mollica, 201632 1114ObservationalProspective, descriptivePatient with localised diseaseProstate cancerDecision-making difficulty and decision-making satisfaction
Lewis, 201433 200ObservationalProspective, descriptivePatient on active treatmentFatigue
Barlow, 201334 12InterventionalProspective, descriptiveWomen on long-term hormonal therapyBreastTherapy adherence
Morgan, 200635 11ObservationalProspective, descriptiveAfrican-American women on cancer treatmentBreastQuality of life
Piderman, 201536 1917ObservationalProspective, descriptivePatients on active treatmentLungMotivational levels for physical activity
Vallurupalli, 201237 69ObservationalProspective, descriptivePatients receiving palliative radiotherapyQuality of life
Neugut, 201638 445ObservationalProspective, descriptiveAdjuvant therapyBreastChemotherapy discontinuation
Gesselman, 201739 498 couplesObservationalProspective, descriptiveSurvivors and partnersBreastPost-traumatic growth
Sterba, 201440 45 (23 patients+22 caregivers)ObservationalProspective, descriptiveSurvivors and caregivers (African-American)BreastSpirituality provides global guidance, guides illness management efforts and facilitates recovery.
Jafari, 201341 68ObservationalProspective, descriptiveIranian patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapyBreastQuality of life, spiritual well-being
Jafari, 201342 68 (34 in the interventional arm)InterventionalProspective, descriptivePatients undergoing radiotherapyBreastQuality of life, spiritual well-being
Tate, 201143 13 studiesLiterature reviewPatient with cancerBreastCoping
Wildes, 200944 117ObservationalProspective, descriptiveLatina cancer survivorsBreastHealth-related quality of life
Bergman, 201145 35ObservationalProspective, descriptiveLow-income patients with cancerProstateGreater palliative treatment use
Zavala, 200946 86ObservationalProspective, descriptiveLow-income patientsMetastatic prostate cancerHealth-related quality of life
Krupski, 200647 222ObservationalProspective, descriptiveIndigent patient with cancerProstateHealth-related quality of life
Leach, 201748 1188ObservationalProspective, descriptiveSurvivorsBreast
Colon and rectum
Preparedness to transition to post-treatment care
Asiedu, 201449 73 (21 patients+52 family members)ObservationalProspective, descriptivePatient with cancer and family membersColorectal cancerCoping with cancer diagnosis
Salsman, 201150 258+568ObservationalProspective, descriptiveSurvivorColorectal cancerHealth-related quality of life
Meraviglia, 200651 60ObservationalProspective, descriptivePatient with cancerLungQuality of life
Piderman, 201536 11InterventionalAnalytical, cohort studyPatients with brain tumours and their supportive personBrainQuality of life
Spiritual coping and spiritual well-being
Holt, 200953 23ObservationalProspective, descriptiveAfrican-American with cancerCoping
Miller, 201754 193ObservationalProspective, descriptiveAdult survivors of childhood cancerAny kind of cancer developed in childhoodHealthcare self-efficacy
Canada, 201655 8405ObservationalProspective, descriptiveSurvivorsFunctional quality of life
Gonzalez, 201456 102ObservationalProspective, descriptiveSurvivorsDepression
Borjalilu, 201657 42InterventionalRandomised controlled trialMothers of children with cancerLess anxiety
Frost, 201258 96 (70 patients+26 spouses)ObservationalProspective, descriptivePatients and their spousesOvarianQuality of life
des Ordons, 201859 37 articlesLiterature reviewPatients with cancer and advanced diseaseEffects of spiritual distress
Jim, 201560 101 unique samplesMeta-analysisPatient with cancerOverall physical health, physical well-being, functional well-being, physical symptoms
Seyedrasooly, 201461 206ObservationalProspective, descriptivePatient with cancerPerception of prognosis