Table 3

Cox proportional hazards models for overall survival

CharacteristicsUnivariate analysesMultivariable model
HR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)P value
Age≥65 vs <650.97
GenderFemale vs male0.81
SmokingCurrent vs never/former0.93
ECOG PS2 vs 0–13.60 (1.70 to 7.60) < 0.001 2.24 (1.01 to 4.95) 0 .04
HistologyNon-squamous vs squamous0.13
PD-L1 statusPositive vs negative0.20
Metastatic sites (N)>2 vs 1–20.22
Brain metsYes vs no0.37
Liver metsYes vs no0.05
Bone metsYes vs no 0 .03 0.09
Line of treatment>2 vs 1–20.85
ICI regimenDual vs mono0.93
Early use of steroidsYes vs no2.60 (1.70 to 4.10) < 0.001 2.38 (1.48 to 3.83) < 0.001
  • P values below the significance threshold are reported in bold.

  • ECOG PS, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status; ICI, immune checkpoint inhibitor.